Oxford Network of Peace Studies (OxPeace)
The Oxford Network of Peace Studies (OxPeace) is a multi-disciplinary initiative to promote the academic study of peace, peacemaking, peacebuilding and peacekeeping at the University of Oxford. OxPeace comprises scholars and students from a variety of disciplines. It organizes lectures, seminars and conferences, and through its email lists it publicizes information about other related events.
The concept of ‘peacebuilding’ has come to be central to peace studies. Successful outcomes in peacebuilding depend on inclusive perspectives. The study of peace adds a fresh dimension to established disciplines and engenders a distinctive multidisciplinary synergy, drawing on politics and international relations, economics, development; gender, media, environmental studies; history; war and conflict studies; education, anthropology, law, ethics and theology to name only a few.
Oxford has a unique comparative advantage. In addition to its wide range of relevant academic disciplines, it has strong links to practitioners. It is thus well placed to promote dialogue between the two communities, to bring scholarship and research to bear on policy analysis and practice and to draw on the insights of practitioners to inform scholarship. OxPeace has begun to promote links between grassroots practitioners, NGOs, policy makers and academic researchers. It sees opportunities for links with scholars and research institutes in the Global South.
Among other events OxPeace has held five multidisciplinary conferences: in May 2009 ‘The Serious Study of Peace’, May 2010 ‘Building Peace’, May 2011 ‘Media. Conflict and Peacebuilding’, May 2012 ‘Disciplines of Peace’ and May 2013 'The Future of Peacebuilding'.
OxPeace looks forward to the creation of permanent posts, and is now seeking the £4 million endowment to establish a professorial Chair in Peace Studies at Oxford.
If you would like to join this network, and/ or wish to post or receive information about relevant meetings, research, etc., please Contact: Dr Liz Carmichael MBE, St John’s College, email@example.com, tel. 01865 277351 or Dr Andrew Gosler, Mansfield College, firstname.lastname@example.org, tel. 01865 271158
‘The Art of Transformation: Creating Peace in the Fog of War’
Dr. Rama Mani will perform poetry and testimony from war-zones and be in conversation with Edward Mortimer, Professor Kalypso Nicolaidis and the audience at 2pm on Armistice Day, 11 November 2014 in the Ashmolean Museum's Auditorium to mark the 100th Anniversary of WWI and honour victims of 21st century wars. Co-sponsored by the Centre for International Studies (CIS), the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (ELAC) and the Oxford Network of Peace Studies (OxPeace).
'Britain in Palestine 1917-1948: Understanding the present conflict'
Thurs 30 Oct at 7.45 pm in the Auditorium, St John's.
Excerpt from Faraway, so Close, theatre piece by Amy Hailwood.
Launch of new educational documentary film: 'Britain in Palestine 1917 - 1948'.
Discussion with panel: Prof Avi Shlaim FBA, Dr Andy Gosler, Dr Mary Embleton, Sir Vincent Fean KCVO (recently retired as British Consul-General, East Jerusalem); Rabbi Danny Rich, chaired by Revd Dr Liz Carmichael MBE.
Refreshments to follow.
OxPeace Event joint with the Balfour project.
Commemorating the 97th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.
Some Past Events:
Restorative Justice Symposium Fri 20 - Sat 21 June (8th week), joint with the Oxford Centre for Christianity and Culture, Regent’s Park College
Details from: Myra.email@example.com
Sunday 18 May 4 pm to 6 pm in St John’s College Auditorium, Beyond Forgiving: a 28 - minute film followed by discussion by the film's subjects Ginn Fourie and Letlapa Mphahlele from South Africa. Joint with Initiatives of Change and the Forgiveness Project. Drinks follow the discussion. Chair: Revd Dr Liz Carmichael.
In 1993 Lyndi Fourie was killed in the Heidelberg Tavern Massacre in Cape Town, aged 23. Nine years later, her mother, Ginn Fourie, heard a radio interview with the man who had ordered the attack. Letlapa Mphahlele, the former Director of Operations of the Azanian People’s Liberation Army (APLA), the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), was in Cape Town to promote his biography, Child of this Soil. Since then both have been working to further conciliation in South Africa through the Lyndi Fourie Foundation.
Friday 16 May 12.30pm in Seminar Room A, Manor Road, OxPeace joint with the CIS and African Studies: Jane Boulden (Royal Minilary College of Canada) discusses her edited volume Responding to Conflict in Africa: the UN and Regional Organizations. A light sandwich lunch is provided at the start of the event.
Drawing on an edited volume of the same title, Dr. Boulden will present the findings of her recent study on how the United Nations and regional organizations respond to conflict in Africa. With a particular focus on the implications of the nature of this UN-regional interaction for the UN, the talk will affirm some traditional assumptions about UN-regional cooperation while challenging others.
OxPeace invites you to its annual Day-Conference: ‘New Wars? No Wars? Peacemaking in New Contexts’, on Saturday 10th May 2014 (end of Second Week, Trinity term) at St John's College, Oxford.
We also invite you to the Conference Dinner, with guest speaker Professor Mary Kaldor (LSE) on the evening of Friday 9th May, 7 for 7.30 pm at Rewley House, corner of St John St and Wellington Sq.
Day-Conference Sat. 10 May 2014: 09.00 registration, first session 0930, ends 17.00.
The opening Plenary features Prof. Sir Hew Strachan, Prof. Margaret Macmillan and Dr Heather Jones (LSE). They will focus on the Conference theme, which sits at the nexus of three current areas of investigation in the field of peace and conflict studies. The first is the persistent claim that the nature of warfare has shifted fundamentally since the end of the Cold War, as interstate war has been incrementally superseded by what some describe as ‘complex emergencies’ – civil conflicts that that blur the lines between war, politics and organized crime. This focus on the shifting dynamics of war, however, has been countered by an intellectual movement which argues that violence within and between societies is not so much morphing, as declining. The thesis of an apparent end to violence and war, in turn, invites reflection on a third area of investigation: the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of what was to be the ‘war to end all wars’ – the First World War.
Breakout sessions will explore: Peace and Conflict in Burma; Wars and inclusive peacemaking in the Balkans; ‘Peace, conflict and new media: current examples, old practices?’; and Arts and Culture in C21st conflict and peacebuilding. Names of speakers are on the poster.
Update: The final Plenary speaker will be Professor Monica Duffy Toft, Blavatnik School of Government, Oxford University, on new challenges in war and peacemaking.
Registration for the Saturday 10 May Day-Conference is free of charge (a small contribution of £5 per student, £10 per non-student will be asked on the day to cover the cost of sandwich lunch and refreshments). You are welcome to walk in on the day, but please register beforehand if possible, as it helps us with numbers for catering. Thanks!
The Conference Dinner will be addressed by Professor Mary Kaldor on the theme: ‘New Wars? No War?’ Mary Kaldor is Professor of Global Governance and Director of the Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit at the London School of Economics. She is the author of many books, including 'The Ultimate Weapon is No Weapon: Human Security and the Changing Rules of War and Peace', 'New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era' and 'Global Civil Society: An Answer to War'. Professor Kaldor was a founding member of the European Nuclear Disarmament and of the Helsinki Citizen's Assembly. She is also convenor of the Human Security Study Group which reported to Javier Solana, and now to Cathy Ashton.
The dinner cost is £35, but the first 20 students to apply will pay only £10 for a subsidized place. Confirmation of a place and instructions on how to pay will be sent via email. There are still places for the dinner, final deadline to apply: Mon 5 May. Dress code: Smart casual
Any enquiries to Conference Assistant firstname.lastname@example.org
Monday 24 February: Professor Alastair Hay ( Leeds University) “Beyond the Nobel Peace Prize:
Chemical Weapons and the OPCW” Joint with Merton Global Directions. Mure Room, Merton, 5.30 pm
Monday 10 March: Professor Rosemary Hollis (City University, London) and students on the Olive Tree programme: “Rethinking the Discourses of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict”, Joint with Merton Global Directions. TS Eliot LT, Merton, 5.30 pm
Intensive training course for current Oxford students (and limited numbers of staff):
Mon 17- Wed 19 March, 2014 (9th Week): Developing Critical Expertise in Peacebuilding, Mediation & Prevention: Global Experiences, Key Lessons and Developments in the Field. At Queen Elizabeth House, Department of International Development. Instructor: Kai Frithjof Brand-Jacobsen, PATRIR. Organised and sponsored by OxPeace. This course is open to students, and to a very limited number of faculty, of Oxford University on a first registered, first accepted basis. To apply: please email your details (name, college, course) and a brief paragraph stating why you wish to attend, to student assistantJure.Jeric@stcatz.ox.ac.ukas soon as possible.
This three-day, practical course will bring students and practitioners together in an intensive course on peacebuilding, mediation and prevention, filled with extensive examples from cases around the world, and practical ideas and key knowledge for people working in the field. The course will draw on a wide range of contemporary case studies and will combine large group lectures with small group, problem-focused discussion.
The special registration fee for Oxford University participants for the full three days is (a mere!) £30 for students, £50 for staff. Accommodation and food are not included. Coffee etc available. The daily programme will run from 9am to 6pm. This course will also be open to a small number of external practioners.
Further course: Intensive in Prevention of Armed Conflict & Armed Violence: with focus on Electoral Violence Prevention and Armed Violence Prevention. Thurs 20- Fri 21 March, 2014 (9th Week), at QEH, organised by OxPeace. Instructor: Kai Frithjof Brand-Jacobsen, PATRIR. A number of Oxford student and/or staff participants will be welcome on this second programme, which partuicularly targets international practitioner participants, focusing on prevention of electoral violence and prevention of armed violence. The fee for this two-day course is an additional £30 for Oxford students, and for staff £50. To apply: Please email student assistant Jure.Jeric@stcatz.ox.ac.uk providing your details (name, college, course) and a short paragraph stating why you wish to attend this particular course on prevention. Normally you will be expected to attend the first course before this one; but if you have some experience in the field, you may be accepted on the second course alone. Please apply as soon as possible. Places will be limited. Accommodation and food are not included. Course runs daily from 9 am to 6 pm, with a break for lunch. Coffee, tea and biscuits will be available
The Colombian Conflict: Spillover Effects and Expectations in the Andean Region
Speaker: Simonetta Rossi, Former United Nations Peace and Development Advisor for Ecuador
Monday, 27 January 2014, 5pm, Department of International Development (Queen Elizabeth House), Mansfield Road, Oxford
Everyone is welcome. A drinks reception will follow the talk and discussion.
The current peace process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) aims to bring to an end the decades-old armed internal conflict in Colombia. Simonetta Rossi will discuss the impact of the conflict in Colombia on its neighbours and the expectations in the Andean region from the current peace talks. For information please contact: email@example.com
Wed 20 Nov 08.30 to 18.30 in The Pavilion, St Antony’s;
The Colombian Peace Talks: A Challenge for Security and Democracy?
All welcome, limited attendance (first come, first served based on registration). Registration for conference: £10 / additional cost of conference dinner: £24. Register now at: http://www.oxforduniversitystores.co.uk/browse/extra_info.asp?compid=1&modid=2&deptid=250&catid=89&prodid=208
Please join us for our multidisciplinary one-day conference that explores the challenges of security and democracy for sustainable peace in Colombia, and draws lessons from other peace processes across the globe. The conference is jointly organised by the Oxford Network of Peace Studies, the Latin American Centre and the Oxford Department of International Development. Further sponsors are the Embassy of Colombia in the UK and Canning House. Distinguished guest panellists include:
· Ingrid Betancourt, former presidential candidate and former hostage of the FARC
· Fernando Carrillo, former Colombian Minister of the Interior (tbc)
· John Dew, former Ambassador of the UK to Colombia (tbc)
· Jorge Orlando Melo, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano
· Henry Patterson, University of Ulster
· Mauricio Rubio, Universidad de Externado de Colombia
· Markus Schultze-Kraft, University of Sussex
The conference will be followed by a conference dinner with speech by Mauricio Rodríguez Múnera, former Ambassador of Colombia to the UK. Further information and registration: http://www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/events-1/xevent?diary_id=5353 Conference convenor: Annette Idler (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Tues 12 Nov (Fifth week) 8pm at Queen Elizabeth House, Mansfield Rd: ‘Can Journalists help build Peace?’
Prof Jake Lynch, former BBC journalist, now Associate Professor and Director of the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Sydney.
Illustrated talk, including a portion of Jake’s recent film: “Peace Journalism in Mexico”. A drinks reception will follow the talk and discussion
Peace Journalism is growing, both as a worldwide reform movement and as a field of scholarship. Jake Lynch will discuss the latest findings, drawing on his recently completed research project, “A Global Standard for Reporting Conflict”, just published by Routledge as a book of the same name. He will describe the Peace Journalism movement and assess its potential significance.
Jake Lynch is the most published and cited author in the field of Peace Journalism. Before taking up an academic post, Jake enjoyed a 17-year career in professional journalism, with spells as a Political Correspondent at Westminster, and a resident Foreign Correspondent (for the Independent, in Sydney), culminating in a role as an on-air presenter for BBC World Television News, for whom he anchored over 1,000 half-hour news bulletins.
Film Screening: 'Dead Man Walking'
On Thursday 23 May all are invited to the film 'Dead Man Walking' in the TS Eliot theatre, Merton College, at 7.30pm preceded by drinks from 7pm.
The film is inspired by the work of Sr Helen Prejean, a leading American activist for the abolition of the death penalty. She is the founder of Survive, an organisation devoted to counselling the families of victims of violence. She served as National Chairperson of the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty from 1993 to 1995.
Sr Helen will probably not be present at the film showing, but she will speak at Choral Evensong in Mertion College Chapel on Sunday 26 May, at 5.45, and all are welcome.
Jointly sponsored by OxPeace and Mertion Global Directions.
For any further info contact Amalia Feld at Merton: Amalia Feld [email@example.com]
“The Future of Peacebuilding”: OxPeace Conference 2013 : Saturday 11 May 0900 – 1730, at St John’s College, Oxford, preceded on Friday 10 May by a Conference Dinner with address by Ingrid Betancourt, former senator and anti-corruption activist in Colombia, kidnapped and held by FARC 2002-2008.
Keynote speakers: Dr Carolyn McAskie OC, University of Ottawa, first UN Asst SG for Peacebuilding and head of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, Professor Paul Rogers, University of Bradford, and Dr Cyril Obi, Program Director of the African Peacebuilding Network at the New York-based SSRC.
Breakout panels on: Environmental peacebuilding in the Middle East with Yossi Leshem (ornithologist, Israel; see www.wingsofpeace.com), Azzam Alwash (the Marshes, Iraq), and Chris Naylor (A Rocha, Lebanon);
Roles of Universities and Peacebuilding with Massimo Caneva (University of Rome, connecting universities in the Balkans and Middle East), Koji Nakamura (Konan University, Kobe, Japan, peace education for exchange students), Yoav Bornstein and Elizabeth Jadon (Olive Tree Israel-Palestine Scholarship programme at City University, London);
Tensions in counter-terrorism and peacebuilding with Anja Shortland (land-based solutions to Somali piracy), Alexander Leveringhaus (drones) and Annette Idler (drugs conflict and peace in Colombia);
UN Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding with Cyril Obi (Africa Peacebuilding Network), Sacha Meuter (UN peacekeeping radio), and Sarah von Billerbeck (local ownership of UN peacebuilding in the DRC).
Open Film Evening: Saturday 11 May at 8pm in the Auditorium, St John's College:
Screening of two films on environmental peacebuilding in the Middle East. "Wings of Peace" describing the work of distinguished Israeli ornithologist Prof. Yossi Leshem and the 'Migrating Birds know no Boundaries' project. And "Miracle in the Iraqi Marshes" describing the work of Goldman Prize-winning conservationist Dr Azzam Alwash in restoring from desert the internationally important Iraqi marshlands. In the presence of Yossi Leshem and Azzam Alwash. All are welcome.
The Conference is open to all, and the Saturday programme is free for students (who are however asked for a voluntary contribution of £5 on the day to help cover the cost of sandwich lunch and coffee/tea). Non-students are asked to contribute £10 on the day. Senior concession as for students.
Registration forms will be sent early in the New Year to all OxPeace email list members, and will be obtainable from the Conference Assistant, Jason Robinson, St Antony’s: Jason.firstname.lastname@example.org to whom all enquiries should be addressed.
The 2013 OxPeace Conference is sponsored by the African Studies Centre, the Centre for International Studies, the St John's College Research Centre, and the Oxford Peace Research Trust.
Maritime Security for Economic Development: one-day Conference, Monday 28 Jan 2013 at Merton College, Oxford. This is an exclusive conference for policy makers, practitioners and academics which aims to tackle the challenges of Maritime Security with the aim of contributing to development and peace. Access is by invitation only, please send an email to: Julia.email@example.com if you would like to take part, outlining the reasons why you would like to attend and what you might contribute to the discussion.
Wednesday 21 November 2012 ‘War and Peace in the 21st Century’, illustrated lecture on ‘getting to zero’, by Dr James Martin, 5pm in the Auditorium St John’s. Jointly hosted by OxPeace with the Human Sciences Global Policy Seminar. Dr Martin, Hon. Fellow of Keble College, founded the Oxford Martin School in 2005 to foster and facilitate innovative, interdisciplinary research on the problems, dangers and opportunities of the near future. A prolific writer and speaker, his forthcoming book is on ‘War and Peace in the Nuclear Age.’
Thursday 15 November 2012 5pm in Merton:talk on the International Network of Emerging Nuclear Specialists (INENS) by its Executive Director Meena Singelee, who holds an MPhil in International Law from Bristol, specialising in managing compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). She will discuss the organisation and its activities, including the training of the next generation of nuclear experts, extending the dialogue to those in developing countries, and the need for cross-disciplinary sharing of knowledge between policy, scientific and industrial communities. Merton Global Directions with OxPeace.
Friday 9 Nov 2012 5pm in the TS Eliot Theatre, Merton: “Kony: Hunt for the World’s Most Wanted”, screening of the recent BBC Panorama programme on Joseph Kony. Why does the LRA continue? Why has Kony not been caught? With Sorious Samora, BAFTA-winning reporter and presenter, and Susan McClelland, Field Producer, Northern Uganda. Discussion and wine reception follows. Merton Global Directions joint with OxPeace.
Sat 27 October 2102: coffee in the New Common Room, Merton, to meet Israeli and Palestinian students studying together at City University, London, on the Olive Tree Scholarships programme.
Thursday 10 May 2012 Fambul Tok: ‘Family talk’. A new model for post-conflict reconciliation, peacebuilding and development. 5pm in T.S. Eliot Theatre, Merton College. Film with speakers, discussion, drinks reception. ‘Fambul Tok’ is a significant community-based method for post-conflict reconciliation and peacebuilding, developed in Sierra Leone. There is current research in Oxford and elsewhere on its effectiveness in promoting grassroots economic development. OxPeace event joint with African Studies and OTJR. All welcome.
Saturday 19 May 2012 OxPeace Day Conference: ‘Disciplines of Peace’, St John’s Auditorium. Preceded by Conference Dinner 7.30pm on Friday 18 May in Rewley House Dining Room. This conference theme, ‘Disciplines of Peace’, allows the exploration of different aspects of the field of peace studies: the relationship between academic research and the practice of peacemaking, peacebuilding and peacekeeping; the skills needed for these practices; the way in which established academic disciplines feed into our understanding of peace and peacebuilding; and the emerging discipline of peace studies itself. How can this area of study be further developed at Oxford?
Dinner Speaker: Simon Hughes MP, Co-Chair of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Conflict Issues (APPGCI) and member of international network of parliamentarians on peqce and conflict. Conference speakers: Richard Caplan, Professor of International Relations, on defining ‘Peacemaking, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping’; Dan Smith OBE, Secretary General of International Alert, on the practical disciplines of peace. Henry Shue, Cheyney Ryan, Cjharlotte Bannister-Parker, on Human Rights, Law, Theology and Religion in Peacebuilding; Marcus Meyer, Richard Barltrop, and a speaker from conciliation Resources on the practical skills of peace making, peacebuilding and peacekeeping: Dr Rhys Kelly and OxPeace speakers on developing the study of peace in the University. For podcasts see below.
"Sierra Leone Elections 2012: Between Democracy and Violence" Workshop
Thursday 23rd February 2012 (Hilary 6th week), 4pm, Clay Room, Nuffield College
Sierra Leone has been praised as a peacebuilding success for its recovery from a civil war, which officially ended in 2002. Ten years on, the November 2012 elections are expected to be the test of this stability but renewed political violence in recent months raises questions about the nature of the country’s path to peace and democracy. What is at stake in these elections? Who are the key players? What will the elections mean for the peacebuilding process? With Sierra Leone experts Mats Utas (Nordic Africa Institute); David Harris (SOAS);
Tuesday 6 March 2012 “I want to build Peace“: grassroots post-conflict peacebuilding in Eastern DRC, 7.30pm, St John’s Auditorium. Open seminar. Shortmonologue play, ‘The Peacebuilder’, on the work of Henri Ladyi (North Kivu Province, DRC). Responses and input from Dr Phil Clark (SOAS and OTJR) and speakers from Peace Direct and International Alert. Discussion, drinks reception. Joint with Oxford Transitional Justice Research (OTJR), OPRT and Peaceroots.
Wed 28-Thurs 29 March 2012 Maritime Security Conference: in TS Eliot Theatre, Merton. Maritime security (crime and conflict prevention; piracy and its causes, drug smuggling, etc). Joint with Merton College and the Naval Staff Strategy Unit.
27 Oct 2011 Open joint seminar: Environmental Conflict & its Resolution 17:00pm, St John's College, Auditorium. 'Ethnic violence, water scarcity and managing resources to promote peace’ Karen Witsenburg, Both ENDS and Max Plank Institute for Anthropology 'Climate Change and Conflict in Sudan: what if development is not the answer to save Darfur?' Harry Verhoeven, Politics & IR, Oxford. 'The Ecology of Conflict: Human-Wildlife Conflict on the Hwange National Park Boundary, Zimbabwe' Andrew Loveridge, Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Zoology. A joint event open to all hosted by the African Studies Centre, OXPEACE & Institute of Human Sciences
‘The Global Peace Index’, presentation by Steve Killelea, founder of the GPI, on the latest findings. Tues 18 Oct 2011 Said Business School. (OxPeace joint with Skoll Foundation).
OxPeace Conference links: Future of Peacebuilding, May 2013; Disciplines of Peace, May 2012; Media in Conflict and Peacebuilding, May 2011; Building Peace, May 2010; The Serious Study of Peace, May 2009
OxPeace Steering Committee:
Convenor: Revd Dr Liz Carmichael MBE (Theology)
Co-Convenor: Dr Andy Gosler (Human Sciences)
Conference Assistant: Esther.Kwan@exeter.ox.ac.uk (MPhil student):
Dr Nic Cheeseman (African Studies); Dr Julia Amos (Development) Dr John Chesworth (Muslim-Christian Studies); Professor Neil MacFarlane (International Relations); Dr Isabella Bunn (Law & Human Rights); Dr John Gledhill (Development); Dr Richard Barltrop (Researcher & consultant mediator); Dr Kirrily Pells (Development); Dr Nicole Stremlau (Media law, CSLS); Dr Robin Gibbons (Theology); Robert Harris (Modern Languages); Johanna Sumuviori (politics); Christopher Watson; Rosie Houldsworth; Antony Ives; Annette Idler (D.Phil student, QEH); Tomoyuki Hashimoto (D.Phil student, Linacre)
Professor Richard Caplan (CIS, International Relations); Dr Craig Jeffrey (Geography);
Dr Rama Mani (Senior Research Associate, CIS); Professor Mary King (RAI & UN University for Peace); Dr Phil Clark (Transitional Justice; SOAS); Professor Henry Shue (IR; Human Rights); Professor Margaret Macmillan (History); Dr Hugo Slim; Bryony Winn (Consultant, McKinsey’s; Development); Lord Williams of Oystermouth.
Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu; Rt Hon Lord Patten of Barnes; President Jimmy Carter; Daw Aung San Suu Kyi; the Most Revd Justin Welby.
OxPeace is glad to acknowledge the ongoing support of the Oxford Peace Research Trust (OPRT) a registered charity founded in 2003 with the aim of promoting the study of peace in Oxford
Updated December 2013